The advances in science and technology have increased the use of materials, which are very limited at the beginning of humanity, in parallel with increasing both the diversity of materials and their value and quality.
In addition to material types such as metal, wood and ceramic used for many years, plastics started to be recognized and used only in the early 20th century.
This type of material, which has developed very rapidly until today, has become superior to other materials in terms of many features. Plastic has become the most preferred type of material in almost every sector, especially automotive, electronics, medical technologies, household appliances, communication, space-air vehicles.
Although PLASTICS is one of the most recent material groups, it is one of the most frequently entered materials in our daily life. The main features of plastics, which have a wide variety and differ from other material groups, are:
1. Their specific weight is low.
2. It has a wide range of mechanical properties.
3. They can be easily shaped and processed.
4. Different usage areas are created by changing the mechanical properties with additives.
5) Heat and electrical conductivity is low.
6) They are transparent.
7) They are resistant to corrosion and chemicals.
8) They can be reprocessed and reused.
9) It is produced cheaply.
HOW IS PLASTIC PRODUCTION MADE?
How to handle the different types of plastic raw materials that are processed in petrochemical plants has reached today with technical R&D studies.
2 techniques are used in plastic production. Plastic injection and plastic extrusion technique.
The existing mold with plastic injection back pressure is locked with a pressure. The molten plastic is dispensed from the nozzle by pressure and cooled in the mold to obtain the desired amount of product. Such products are 2-dimensional. Closed volumetric products are not obtained.
Plastic extrusion material flows to the waste. Without counter pressure, the material comes out of an open die and a cooling calibrator is needed. With these two, the material is shaped by pulling. For example, pvc window joinery profiles are drawn in this way. 3D volumetric plastic products are obtained with this technique. Sample cans, all kinds of bottles and water containers.
We need plastic molds for forming the above techniques. With these plastic processing machines, plastic production is made in the order that plastic molds are combined.
If we briefly touch upon the process of obtaining plastic raw material in petrochemical plants, different types of plastic raw materials are produced by transforming different manomers separated from crude oil into polymer in petroleum chemical plants. Plastic raw materials are generally divided into 2 main groups. Commercial size plastics: utensils, drums, cleaning materials, etc.
Engineering plastics: Plastics resistant to external conditions, which have special, fireproof properties and whose prices are at least 50-100% expensive compared to commercial plastics, are called engineering plastics.
In the last 20 years, plastic ALLOYS have been obtained not only chemically, but with chemical additives, which are used in plastic products that do not change the dimensional stability of the parts, which are resistant to heat and external conditions, preventing brittleness, increasing the impact strength by adding additives.
These ALLOYS have such mechanical features that, in the automotive industry, engine cover, special plastics in the aircraft industry, etc., in addition to weight gains, component costs have fallen, but quality has reached the highest level.
As a result, we call the production of plastic to the order in which suitable plastic mold and suitable plastic raw materials are selected and used together with plastic production machines. If there are very special manufacturing conditions, we can express medical plastic production. For this reason, in order to get results in plastic production, extensive knowledge and a lot of experience is required.
In plastic production, plastic processing is not a stable event. Winter and summer conditions require changes in production. Employees in these production conditions, which are specially processed, are valuable employees, because there is a lot of control events in the enterprise, and in the slightest carelessness or inattention, the quality negativity of the product is instantly increased and customer dissatisfaction increases.
Once the production order is in place, if the conditions do not change, the results are positive and continuous.
There are many trained technical personnel in this regard. We need technicians who will work in plastic production with minimum education level of graduate from plastic vocational high schools and vocational high schools. We are waiting for improvements in this regard.
We want to close the training gap for our employees with plastic chemistry and practical orientation courses.